Tuesday, October 8, 2013

Food Variety, Calorie Intake, and Weight Gain

Let's kick off this submit with a estimate from a 2001 review paper (1):

Elevated range in the meals source could contribute to the advancement and maintenance of being overweight.  Thirty-nine scientific studies analyzing nutritional variety, strength intake, and physique composition are reviewed. Animal and human studies show that food use boosts when there is more range in a food or diet program and that greater nutritional assortment is linked with enhanced entire body bodyweight and excess fat.

This could seem counterintuitive, given that variety in the diet program is usually observed as a excellent issue.  In some methods, it is a good factor, however in this put up we'll see that it can have a draw back.

When performing my typical rounds of the literature very last week, I arrived across a intriguing paper I hadn't witnessed just before titled "Assortment in the Diet plan Enhances Ingestion in a Food and Contributes to the Improvement of Weight problems in the Rat", by Dr. Barbara Rolls and colleagues (2).  As the title suggests, they examined the effect of meals palatability and variety on meals ingestion and fat obtain in rats.  They tested 6 diverse eating plans:
  1. Normal rat chow

  2. Rat chow additionally crackers

  3. Rat chow furthermore cookies

  4. Rat chow plus chocolate

  5. Rat chow furthermore crackers, cookies, or chocolate, with each and every of the palatable food items offered in succession (i.e. chow furthermore crackers, then chow in addition cookies, and so on.).

  6. Rat chow plus crackers, cookies, and chocolate all at the identical time.  

Incorporating a palatable foodstuff to the cage (crackers, cookies, or chocolate) increased foods consumption, as predicted.  Adding a number of palatable meals at when elevated meals intake additional, suggesting that selection in addition to palatability contributed to foods ingestion.

When rats ended up fed these diets for 7 months, they made significant variations in fat gain:

Regular with the food ingestion knowledge, each of the palatable foodstuff enhanced excess weight and excess fat obtain, nonetheless giving them all at when brought on the rats to acquire excess weight and fat at an even larger fee.  We already understood from the "cafeteria diet plan" studies that easy accessibility to a assortment of palatable meals can trigger quick body fat gain in rats and individuals (three, 4), but this review demonstrates that foodstuff selection by itself is an essential element of the equation.

The benefits of this experiment demonstrate that the simultaneous presentation of a assortment of palatable meals can lead to hyperphagia [too much ingesting] and the advancement of weight problems.

Foods range is a determinant of the palatability and reward price of the food as a total.  However, to be far more exact, range-induced overeating is normally defined by a related phenomenon referred to as "sensory-specific satiety".  The idea is this: as a meal progresses, we get exhausted of ingesting distinct meals, but being' full' on one particular foods will not essentially indicate we want to cease consuming yet another foodstuff.  If a variety of foods are existing on the table, we are inclined to try to eat more overall foodstuff before feeling happy.  There is a large quantity of evidence supporting the principle of sensory-specific satiety and its relevance to food consumption.

What about the result of foods range on humans?  A variety of trials have revealed that increasing foods range will increase overall calorie intake at a single food, even if the foodstuff all have almost similar composition (five).  A review released in 2001 confirmed that this influence is sustained for at the very least 7 days in individuals (six).  Food range is possibly an important part of why human volunteers overeat and achieve bodyweight rapidly on a human "cafeteria diet plan" (

In the affluent Western Modern society, foodstuff is offered in a succession of simultaneous selection meals, and in this circumstance, the challenge introduced by variety to body fat regulation is significantly increased and could direct to even higher will increase in human body excess weight [than was noticed in this examine].

Update: "DagherStrength" pointed out on twitter that this will help clarify "unbuckle your pants syndrome" at all-you-can-take in buffets.  Good level!

Title: Food Variety, Calorie Intake, and Weight Gain
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