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Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Ketosis, methylglyoxal, and accelerated aging: Fact or fiction?

Ketosis is a point out normally related with quite low carbohydrate diets, these kinds of as the Atkins diet plan. In this condition, the liver makes ketones based mostly on excess fat (physique fat or dietary fat). Unlike fat, ketones are drinking water soluble and employed by numerous tissues (which includes brain tissues) as a resource of vitality.

Unlike glucose and lipoprotein-bound fat (in VLDL, for case in point), unused ketones can not be converted back again to substances that can be saved by the physique. Hence excessive ketones are eradicated in the urine major to their detection by numerous assessments, e.g., Ketostix tests.

This elimination of unused ketones in the urine is a single of the factors why really reduced carbohydrate diet plans are believed to lead to increased body body fat decline.

From an evolutionary standpoint, 1 could argue that a ketosis point out that involves the elimination of ketones in the urine is an inefficient and unnatural unexpected emergency mechanism. For our Paleolithic ancestors, dying of hunger was a a lot greater issue than dying of being overweight problems.

An exciting speculation has been about for really some time about a feasible unfavorable influence of ketosis. It goes more or less like this. Ketosis prospects to the creation of an organic and natural compound named methylglyoxal, which is thought to be a powerful agent of glycation (a misnomer see notice underneath).

Glycation is a process whereby sugar molecules “stick” to protein or excess fat molecules, impairing their operate. Glycation prospects to the formation of superior glycation endproducts (AGEs), which look to be connected with a host of conditions, like diabetes, and to be implicated in accelerated growing older (or “ageing”, with British spelling).

In limited: ketosis qualified prospects to the creation of methylglyoxal, which prospects to the formation of AGEs, which in turn lead to ailments and accelerated ageing.

Observe: Because glycation refers to “sugar” molecules sticking to protein and fat, its use in the context of methylglyoxal is arguably incorrect. Methylglyoxal is not a sugar, but an aldehyde.

1 of the strongest indictments of ketosis, in relation to methylglyoxal, is manufactured in a reasonably properly referenced ebook by De Grey (2007) the entire reference to the ebook is at the stop of this post. De Grey’s guide is about ageing, and how to quit or at the very least hold off it. Total, it is an exceptional ebook. Right here is some relevant textual content, from page 173 of the ebook:
… 1 proven result of very lower-carbohydrate diets of the Atkins kind is to deliver down each triglyceride amounts and the body’s complete publicity to carbs, so some advocates have hypothesized that these diets planet decrease a person’s AGE burden. Regrettably, it turns out that the metabolic state that these diet plans induce (the notorious “ketosis”) has the regrettable facet influence of creating a soar in the production of the oxoaldehyde methylglyoxal, a main precursor of AGEs that is also, ironically, developed inside of cells of diabetic patients when they are compelled to just take in much more glucose than they can immediately process … methylglyoxal is much much more chemically reactive than blood sugar (up to forty,000 moments a lot more reactive, in fact), and is acknowledged to result in vast-ranging damage in the human body, of which AGE cross-hyperlinks are but one particular case in point. This possibly helps make the Atkins diet program a recipe for accelerated AGEing …
Is this idea that ketosis, via methylglyoxal, can result in accelerated ageing truth or fiction?

Sorry, but I need to have to consult with my guru before I put up my response.

Reference:

De Grey, A. (2007). Ending growing older: The rejuvenation breakthroughs that could reverse human getting older in our life time. New York: NY: St. Martin’s Push.
Title: Ketosis, methylglyoxal, and accelerated aging: Fact or fiction?
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